Given the data path of the LC-3 (provided below), give a complete description of the STORE DIRECT instruction (ST SR, label), as follows


I've tried reading the book but I'm not sure exactly how to go about this. Anyone have an idea?

I've tried reading the book but I'm not sure exactly how to go about this. Anyone have an idea?


Answers:


So in doing these problems its best to have the datapath in front of you and have the Register Transfer Language written down, you do these problems step by step, it is a little daunting, but following all of the Digital Logic you have learned it is all a matter of you being a pirate and the datapath being your treasure map.

To do this you just follow the wires in the diagram. I'm using this one which I'm sure is in the Patt/Patel textbook https://i.ytimg.com/vi/PeWbyffnkZ4/maxresdefault.jpg

Mem[PC + SEXT(IR[8:0])] = SR

Clock Cycle 1

So the first thing you need to do is SEXT(IR[8:0]) So where in the datapath is a sign extender and where is the IR. If you look at the ADDR2MUX you see it has 4 inputs each being bits from the IR and one with 0. So ADDR2MUX=IR[8:0]

Next we need to add the PC to it. So from the output of the ADDR2MUX will be the SEXT(IR[8:0]) So next we need to add the PC to that output. Well we see the output of the ADDR2MUX feeds into an adder. So ok we need to set the other adder up with the PC. The ADDR1MUX has an input from the register file and the PC. So ADDR1MUX=PC

Both of these inputs go into the adder and now the output of that adder has PC + SEXT(IR[8:0])

Next we need to store to memory, the address we want to store to is PC + SEXT(IR[8:0]), and what we want to store is SR. So how do we do that? To interface with memory we need to put the address in the MAR (Memory Address Register) and the data we want to store in the MDR. So lets do the MAR step first. So we need to put the result of the ADDER into the MAR. The only path we can take is the MARMUX. So MARMUX=ADDER. We need to Gate the MARMUX to put it out on the bus as well. So GateMARMUX.

The value of the MARMUX is now out onto the bus so we want to latch that into the MAR so LDMAR.

We need a new clock cycle now because we need to wait for the value to latch into the register which happens at the beginning of a new clock cycle.

Clock Cycle 1 Signals - ADDR2MUX=IR[8:0], ADDR1MUX=PC, MARMUX=ADDER, GateMARMUX, LDMAR

Clock Cycle 2

Now lets the source register into the MDR. Looking at the diagram we need a path from the register file to the BUS to get it into the MDR. There's actually two ways of doing this one going through ADDR1MUX and one going through the ALU.

I will take the ALU path as its slightly more correct.

First we need to make SR1 be the source register from the instruction so SR1MUX=[11:9]

The Source register from the instruction now comes out the register file from the SR1 output, this feeds into the ALU. So we must choose the operation the ALU does so, ALUK=PASSA. PASSA simply makes the output of the ALU the 'A' input.

We then need to put the ALU output on the bus so GateALU

Now the ALU output is on the bus and we want to store this in the MDR, however there is a MUX blocking that input. MIO.EN=0 to select the bus output to go into the MDR. Then we need to latch that value into the register so LDMDR

We just tried to load a value into a register so it will not be available in the output until the start of the next clock cycle so..

Clock Cycle 2 Signals - SR1MUX=[11:9], ALUK=PASSA, GateALU, MIO.EN=0, LDMDR

Clock Cycle 3

All we need to do is give memory a good ol kick to store the value in the MDR at the address in the MAR so... MIO.EN=1, R/W=W

Clock Cycle 3 signals - MIO.EN=1, R/W=W

So this concludes the ST instruction it takes 3 clock cycles and the signals to assert each clock cycle are indicated at the end of each clock cycle. All of those signals per clock cycle can be turned on at the same time.