How to draw a directed arrow line in Java?


I want to draw a directed arrow line through Java.

At present, I am using java.awt.Line2D.Double class to draw a line

g2.setStroke(new BasicStroke(2.0f, BasicStroke.CAP_BUTT, BasicStroke.JOIN_BEVEL)); // g2 is an instance of Graphics2D
g2.draw(new Line2D.Double(x1,y1,x2,y2));

But only the line appears and no directed arrow appears. BasicStroke.Join_BEVEL is used to draw a directed arrow. It is applied when two line segments meet.

The line I am drawing meets the border of a rectangle but no directed arrow is drawn. Only a simple line is drawn.

Is there anything I am missing?


Answers:


The bevel is drawn between segments in a polyline if they are at certain angles. It has no bearing if you are drawing a line which happens to be drawn near some other pixels which are of a certain colour - once you've drawn the rectangle, the Graphics object doesn't know about the rectangle, it (in effect) only holds the pixels. ( or rather the image or OS window holds the pixels ).

To draw a simple arrow, draw a line for the stalk as you're doing, then a polyline for the vee. Nicer looking nicer arrows have curved sides and are filled.

You probably don't want to use bevel for the arrow head, as bevels are a flat; instead use the mitre option:

import java.awt.*;
import java.awt.geom.*;
import javax.swing.*;

public class BevelArrows
{
    public static void main ( String...args )
    {
        SwingUtilities.invokeLater ( new Runnable () {
            BevelArrows arrows = new BevelArrows();

            @Override
            public void run () {
                JFrame frame = new JFrame ( "Bevel Arrows" );

                frame.add ( new JPanel() {
                    public void paintComponent ( Graphics g ) {
                        arrows.draw ( ( Graphics2D ) g, getWidth(), getHeight() );
                    }
                }
                , BorderLayout.CENTER );

                frame.setSize ( 800, 400 );
                frame.setDefaultCloseOperation ( JFrame.EXIT_ON_CLOSE );
                frame.setVisible ( true );
            }
        } );
    }

    interface Arrow {
        void draw ( Graphics2D g );
    }

    Arrow[] arrows = { new LineArrow(), new CurvedArrow() };

    void draw ( Graphics2D g, int width, int height )
    {
        g.setRenderingHint ( RenderingHints.KEY_ANTIALIASING, RenderingHints.VALUE_ANTIALIAS_ON );

        g.setColor ( Color.WHITE );
        g.fillRect ( 0, 0, width, height );

        for ( Arrow arrow : arrows ) {
            g.setColor ( Color.ORANGE );
            g.fillRect ( 350, 20, 20, 280 );

            g.setStroke ( new BasicStroke ( 20.0f, BasicStroke.CAP_BUTT, BasicStroke.JOIN_BEVEL ) );
            g.translate ( 0, 60 );
            arrow.draw ( g );

            g.setStroke ( new BasicStroke ( 20.0f, BasicStroke.CAP_BUTT, BasicStroke.JOIN_MITER ) );
            g.translate ( 0, 100 );
            arrow.draw ( g );

            g.setStroke ( new BasicStroke ( 20.0f, BasicStroke.CAP_BUTT, BasicStroke.JOIN_ROUND ) );
            g.translate ( 0, 100 );
            arrow.draw ( g );

            g.translate ( 400, -260 );
        }
    }

    static class LineArrow  implements Arrow
    {
        public void draw ( Graphics2D g )
        {
            // where the control point for the intersection of the V needs calculating
            // by projecting where the ends meet

            float arrowRatio = 0.5f;
            float arrowLength = 80.0f;

            BasicStroke stroke = ( BasicStroke ) g.getStroke();

            float endX = 350.0f;

            float veeX;

            switch ( stroke.getLineJoin() ) {
                case BasicStroke.JOIN_BEVEL:
                    // IIRC, bevel varies system to system, this is approximate
                    veeX = endX - stroke.getLineWidth() * 0.25f;
                    break;
                default:
                case BasicStroke.JOIN_MITER:
                    veeX = endX - stroke.getLineWidth() * 0.5f / arrowRatio;
                    break;
                case BasicStroke.JOIN_ROUND:
                    veeX = endX - stroke.getLineWidth() * 0.5f;
                    break;
            }

            // vee
            Path2D.Float path = new Path2D.Float();

            path.moveTo ( veeX - arrowLength, -arrowRatio*arrowLength );
            path.lineTo ( veeX, 0.0f );
            path.lineTo ( veeX - arrowLength, arrowRatio*arrowLength );

            g.setColor ( Color.BLUE );
            g.draw ( path );

            // stem for exposition only
            g.setColor ( Color.YELLOW );
            g.draw ( new Line2D.Float ( 50.0f, 0.0f, veeX, 0.0f ) );

            // in practice, move stem back a bit as rounding errors
            // can make it poke through the sides of the Vee
            g.setColor ( Color.RED );
            g.draw ( new Line2D.Float ( 50.0f, 0.0f, veeX - stroke.getLineWidth() * 0.25f, 0.0f ) );
        }
    }

    static class CurvedArrow  implements Arrow
    {
        // to draw a nice curved arrow, fill a V shape rather than stroking it with lines
        public void draw ( Graphics2D g )
        {
            // as we're filling rather than stroking, control point is at the apex,

            float arrowRatio = 0.5f;
            float arrowLength = 80.0f;

            BasicStroke stroke = ( BasicStroke ) g.getStroke();

            float endX = 350.0f;

            float veeX = endX - stroke.getLineWidth() * 0.5f / arrowRatio;

            // vee
            Path2D.Float path = new Path2D.Float();

            float waisting = 0.5f;

            float waistX = endX - arrowLength * 0.5f;
            float waistY = arrowRatio * arrowLength * 0.5f * waisting;
            float arrowWidth = arrowRatio * arrowLength;

            path.moveTo ( veeX - arrowLength, -arrowWidth );
            path.quadTo ( waistX, -waistY, endX, 0.0f );
            path.quadTo ( waistX, waistY, veeX - arrowLength, arrowWidth );

            // end of arrow is pinched in
            path.lineTo ( veeX - arrowLength * 0.75f, 0.0f );
            path.lineTo ( veeX - arrowLength, -arrowWidth );

            g.setColor ( Color.BLUE );
            g.fill ( path );

            // move stem back a bit
            g.setColor ( Color.RED );
            g.draw ( new Line2D.Float ( 50.0f, 0.0f, veeX - arrowLength * 0.5f, 0.0f ) );
        }
    }
}